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Korean J Med > Volume 88(5); 2015 > Article
The Korean Journal of Medicine 2015;88(5): 509-517.
다제내성결핵의 진단과 치료
울산대학교 의과대학 서울아산병원 호흡기내과
Diagnosis and Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
Tae Sun Shim
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding Author: Tae Sun Shim ,Tel: +82-2-3010-3892, Fax: +82-2-3010-6968, Email: shimts@amc.seoul.kr
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Despite global efforts to control tuberculosis (TB), multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is still a serious problem worldwide. The diagnosis of MDR-TB is based on mycobacterial culture followed by drug susceptibility testing, with results available in weeks to months. This requirement calls for rapid direct tests, especially genotypic tests, in which specimens are amplified directly for the detection of MDR-TB. The treatment of MDR-TB is challenging because of the high toxicity of second-line drugs and the longer treatment duration required compared to drug-susceptible TB. The selection of drugs in MDR-TB is based on the treatment history, drug susceptibility results, and TB drug resistance patterns in each region. Recent World Health Organization guidelines recommend the use of at least four second-line drugs (i.e., a newer fluoroquinolone, an injectable agent, prothionamide, and cycloserine or para-aminosalicylic acid) in addition to pyrazinamide. Kanamycin is the initial choice of an injectable drug, and newer fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For extensively drug-resistant TB, group 5 drugs such as linezolid and clofazimine need to be included. New drugs such as delamanid and bedaquiline have recently been approved for treating MDR-TB and other agents with novel mechanisms of action that can be given for shorter durations (6-12 months) for MDR-TB are under investigation.
Keywords: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; Diagnosis; Treatment
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