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Korean J Med > Volume 87(4); 2014 > Article
The Korean Journal of Medicine 2014;87(4): 415-423.
직장 신경내분비종양의 진단과 치료
단국대학교 의과대학 내과학교실
Diagnosis and Treatment of Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumor
Hyun Deok Shin
Department of Internal Medicine, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan, Korea
Corresponding Author: Hyun Deok Shin ,Tel: +82-41-550-3828, Fax: +82-41-556-3256, Email: emedicals@hanmail.net
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync/3.0/) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are not uncommon. Recently, the incidence of rectal NETs has increased markedly due to the widespread use of screening colonoscopy. Most rectal NETs detected incidentally are asymptomatic and at an early stage at diagnosis. Typical NETs < 10 mm in size and confined to the submucosal layer can be resected completely using various endoscopic treatments. These NETs have a good prognosis. However, not all NETs necessarily have good prognoses; those > 10 mm in size, with ulceration or depression, muscularis invasion seen on endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), lymphovascular invasion, or a high mitotic index histologically are associated with metastasis. Generally, NETs < 10 mm can be treated endoscopically, while those > 20 mm should be resected surgically. The treatment of NETs between 10 and 20 mm is controversial. For these, it is necessary to choose an effective, safe primary resection method to ensure complete resection and to perform a careful histological examination of the resected tissue.
Keywords: Rectum; Neuroendocrine tumor; Endoscopic treatment; Prognosis
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